THIRD PUBLICATION, JANUARY 2015. The Bioscientist. Vol. 3
The Bioscientist: Vol. 3(1): 45- 55, January 2015.
Available online at http://www.bioscientistjournal.com
Umeh S.O. et al., 2015 Page 45
THE USE OF LICHENS IN THE BIOMONITORING OF HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY PREMISES .
*Umeh, S.O., Agu, G.C., Okpalla, J. and Uche, E.O.
1 1Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Awka, Nigeria.
2Department of Microbiology Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State. Nigeria
3Department of Microbiology, Anambra State University, Uli, Anambra State Nigeria.
.*Corresponding Author’s email: email@example.com
ABSTRACT (Download PDF )
Heavy metals accumulation in the environment can cause dangerous ailments such as cancer,
respiratory disorders, skin diseases etc to man. This work was carried out to monitor the
concentrations of seven heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury and
arsenic) in four locations at Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka premises, using lichen as a biomonitor.
The locations were: Garba square (A), Science Village (B), Administrative Block (C)
and Faculty of Environmental Sciences [Bakasi] (D). Results obtained were compared with
WHO Standard (E) after analysis with (ANOVA) using SPSS computer Software (version 20) at
0.05 significant levels. It was observed that the concentrations of lead were high in C and D
(0.83 and 1.25 ppm respectively) higher than E (0.50 ppm). Zinc was accumulating in three
locations with B (5.87 ppm) showing the highest. The concentrations of Chromium in C and D
were (0.103 ppm and 0.228 ppm respectively). Copper was increasing in all the locations, but
below the standard. Cadmium in A was higher than the standard (1.17 and 0.80 ppm
respectively). Mercury was not detected in any of the locations while arsenic was high in A and
B (63.37 and 35.50 ppm respectively) surpassing the standard (1.00 ppm). It was advised that the
sources of these metals be checked to avoid the bad effects they may cause in future
Keywords: Heavy metals, lichen, bio-marker, Unizik, environment, pollution
© 2013. Journal of Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,
P. M. B. 5025 Awka, Nigeria.