Main Article Content

O. K. Achi
E Ejike
O. I. Ibok
C. G. Ohaegbu


Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of highly specialized bacteria specifically adapted to a diverse range of habitats. They are relevant not only for traditional food fermentations, but also as probiotics, potential therapeutics and cell factories for the production of naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds which could be applied as food preservatives to protect food quality and extend the shelf life of foods and beverages. The metabolic products of LAB improve shelf-life, organoleptic and nutritional properties of foods. The industrial potential of LAB, however, is much wider and many strains have well-established metabolites which represent promising avenues where nature’s gifts may be repurposed for use in food quality and safety.  The use of lactic acid bacteria and metabolites in food fermentations thereof to increase product shelf life has attracted much interest during recent years. Their potential use as biopreservatives and as probiotics in many food matrices appears to be huge. The bio-functional properties such as antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic and anti-cancer activities are the very best applicable research areas of lactic acid bacteria in human health. This review shall give an overview highlighting some of the most striking technological/industrial applications of lactic acid bacteria as well as their metabolites in food safety and human health.

Article Details

How to Cite
Achi, O. K., Ejike, E., Ibok, O. I., & Ohaegbu, C. G. (2019). DEVELOPMENTS OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND THEIR METABOLITES FOR FOOD QUALITY, FOOD SAFETY AND HUMAN HEALTH. The Bioscientist Journal, 7(1), 62-83. Retrieved from


Achi, O.K., Asamudo N.U. (2019) Cereal-Based Fermented Foods of Africa as Functional Foods. In: Mérillon JM., Ramawat K. (eds) Bioactive Molecules in Food. Reference Series in Phytochemistry. Springer, Cham
.Adedokun, E. O., Rather, I. A., Bajpai, V. K., and Park, Y. H. (2016). Biocontrol efficacy of Lactobacillus fermentum YML014 against food spoilage moulds using the tomato puree model. Frontiers in Life Science, 9(1), 64–68.
Adesulu-Dahunsi, A. T., Sanni, A. I., Jeyaram, K., &Banwo, K. (2017). Genetic diversity of Lactobacillus plantarum strains from some indigenous fermented foods in Nigeria. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 82, 199–206.
Afolayan AO, Ayeni FA, Ruppitsch W (2017) Antagonistic and qualitative assessment of indigenous lactic acid bacteria in different varieties of ogi against gastrointestinal pathogens Pan African Medical Journal 27, 22.9707
Aka S, B. Dridi, A. Bolotin A. E. Yapo M. Koussemon-Camara, B. Bonfoh and P. Renault (2020).Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a traditional Ivoirian 1 beer process to develop starter cultures for safe sorghum-based beverages. International Journal of Microbiology, 322,108547
Akbar, A. I. Ali, A. K. Ana Industrial perspectives of lactic acid bacteria for biopreservation and food safety The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 26(4): 938-994
Altieri, C. Ciuffreda, E Di Maggio B and M Sinigaglia (2017). Lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures In Starter Cultures in Food Production, First Edition. Edited by B. Speranza, A. Bevilacqua, M Rosaria Corbo and M Sinigaglia. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp 1-15
Anukam K C. and G Reid (2009). African Traditional Fermented Foods and Probiotics J Med Food 12 (6) 1177–1184
Anyogu, A. Olukorede, A C. Anumudu, H. Onyeaka, E. Areo, O. Adewale, J. N. Odimba, and O. Nwaiwu (2021). Microorganisms and food safety risks associated with indigenous fermented foods from Africa. Food Control 129, November108227
Aunsbjerg, S. D., Honor´e, A. H., Marcussen, J., Ebrahimi, P., Vogensen, F.K., Benfeldt, C.,andKnøchel, S. (2015). Contribution of volatiles to the antifungal effect of Lactobacillus paracasei in defined medium and yogurt. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 194, 46–53.
Ayivi, R.D.; Gyawali, R.; Krastanov, A.; Aljaloud, S.O.; Worku, M.; Tahergorabi, R.; Silva, R.C.and Ibrahim, S.A. (2020). Lactic Acid Bacteria: Food Safety and Human Health Applications. Dairy 1, 202-232.
Badel, S. Bernardi, T, and Michaud P. (2011). New perspectives for Lactobacilli exopolysaccharides. Biotechnology Advances 29:54–66.
Bamgbose T., Atta H. and Anupkumar R. A. (2021). Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Industrial Application Curr. Top. Lact. Acid Bact. Probiotics; 7(1):1-13
Barcenilla C, Ducic M, López M, Prieto M,and Álvarez-Ordóñez A. (2022 ). Application of lactic acid bacteria for the biopreservation of meat products: A systematic review. Meat Sci.Jan;183:108661.
Ben Omar, N., Abriouel, H., Lucas, R., MatinezCanamero, M., Guyot, J.P. and Galvez, A. 2006, Isolation of bacteriocinogenis Lactobacillus plantarum strains from ben saalga, a traditional fermented gruel from Burkina Faso. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 112: 201-204.
Ben Said, L., Gaudreau, H., Dallaire, L., Tessier, M., FlissI.,(2019). Bioprotective culture: A new generation of food additives for the preservation of food quality and safety. Industrial Biotechnology, 15. 3. 138-147.
Bintsis. T. (2018). Lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures: An update in their metabolism and genetics[J]. AIMS Microbiology, 4(4): 665-684.
Bron PA, van Baarlen P, and Kleerebezem M.(2012). Emerging molecular insights into the interaction between probiotics and the host intestinal mucosa. Nat Revs. 10:66–78.
Caplice, E .and Fitzgerald, G. F., (1999). Food fermentation: role of microorganisms in food production and preservation. International. Journal Food Microbiology, 50, 131–149
Chelule, P.K., Mokoena, M.P., and Gqaleni, N. (2010), Advantages of traditional lactic acid bacteria fermentation of food in Africa, in: Mendez-Vilas, A. (Ed.), Current Research, Technology and Education Topics in Applied Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology, Series 2, 2,.1160–1167.
Chlebowska-Smigiel, A., Gniewosz, M., Kieliszek, M., and Bzducha-Wrobel, A. (2017). The effect of pullulan on the growth and acidifying activity of selected stool microflora of human. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 18(2), 121–126.
Chugh, B., and Kamal-Eldin, A. (2020). Bioactive compounds produced by probiotics in food products. Current Opinion Food Science. 32, 76–82.
Cogan, TM, Beresford TP, Steele J, et al.(2007). Invited review: advances in starter cultures and cultured foods. J Dairy Scien.;90(9):4005–4021.
Cotter, P. D., Ross, R. P., and Hill, C. (2013). Bacteriocins—a viable alternative to antibiotics? Nature Reviews Microbiology, 11(2), 95.
Debelo, H., Li, M., and Ferruzzi, M. G. (2020). Processing influences on food polyphenol profiles and biological activity. Current Opinion Food Science. 32, 90–102.
Derkx PM, Janzen T, Sørensen KI, et al. 2014 The art of strain improvement of industrial lactic acid bacteria without the use of recombinant DNA technology. Microbial Cell Factories;13:S5.
Dokka, A. Y.k. Reddy, G.S. Spoorthy and I.S Reddy (2018). Protective Cultures - A Review Int.J.Curr. Microbiol. AppiedScience 7(6): 228-238
EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards, Ricci, A., Allende, A., Bolton, D., Chemaly, M., Davies, R., et al. (2017). Scientific opinion on the update of the list of QPS-recommended biological agents intentionally added to food or feed as notified to EFSA. EFSA J. 15:e04664.
Ezendam, J.; Van Loveren, H.(2008). Probiotics: Immunomodulation and Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy. Nutr. Rev. 64, 1–14.
Flach, J., van der Waal, M. B., van den Nieuwboer, M., Claassen, E., and Larsen, O. F. A. (2018). The underexposed role of food matrices in probiotic products: reviewing the relationship between carrier matrices and product parameters. Critical. Reviews Food Science Nutrition 58, 2570–2584.
Florou-Paneri P, Christaki E, Bonos E. Lactic acid bacteria as source of functional ingredients. In: Kongo M, editor. Lactic acid bacteria - R&D for food, health and livestock purposes, Intechopen, Rijeka, Croatia, 2013; 589–614.
Fontán, M. C. G., Martínez, S., Franco, I., & Carballo, J. (2006). Microbiological and chemical changes during the manufacture of Kefifir made from cows' milk, using a commercial starter culture. International Dairy Journal, 16(7), 762–767.
Franz CM, and Arneborg N (2010). The effect of bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum strains on the intracellular pH of sessile and planktonic Listeria monocytogenes single cells. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 141:S53–S59.
Franz, CMAP, Hutch M. Mathara J.M. Abrouel H. Benomar, N. Ried, G. Galvez A and Holzapfel W.H. (2014). African fermented foods and probiotics International Journal of Food Microbiology 3, 190:84-96
Fuller, R. (1989). ‘Probiotics in man and animals’, Journal Applied Bacteriology, 66, 365–378.
Gänzle, M. (2020). Food fermentations for improved digestibility of plant foods – an essential ex-situ digestion step in agricultural societies? Current Opinion in Food Science, 32,124-132.
Garcia-Diez, J. and Saraiva, C. (2021). Use of starter cultures in foods from animal origin to improve safety International Journal of Research in Public Health 18(5) 2544
Giraffa, G. (2014). “Overview of the ecology and biodiversity of the LAB,” in Lactic Acid Bacteria: Biodiversity and Taxonomy, Chapter 4, eds W. H. Holzapfel and B. J. Wood (West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons), 45–54.
Hati, S.; Mandal, S and Prajapat, J.B. (2013). Novel Starters for Value Added Fermented Dairy Products. Current Research Nutrition Food Science J., 1, 83–91
Hawaz, E. (2014). Isolation and identification of probiotic lactic acid bacteria from curd and in vitro evaluation of its growth inhibition activities against pathogenic bacteria. African Journal Microbiology Research 8:1419–1425.
Hayek SA, Ibrahim SA. 2013 Current limitations and challenges with lactic acid bacteria: a review. Food Nutrition Science.4:73–87.
Hill, C., Guarner, F., Reid, G., Gibson, G. R., Merenstein, D. J., Pot, B., et al. (2014). The International Scientific Association for probiotics and prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nature Rev. Gastroenterology Hepatology. 11, 506–514.
Johansen E. (2018). Use of natural selection and evolution to develop new starter cultures for fermented foods. Annu Rev Food Sci T.9:411–428.
Jolly, L, Vincent, S.F, Duboc, P and Neeser, J-R (2002). Exploiting exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 82:367–374
Kahouli, I.; Tomaro-Duchesneau, C.; Prakash, S.(2013). Probiotics in colorectal cancer (CRC) with emphasis on mechanisms of action and current perspectives. J. Med. Microbiol. 62, 1107–1123.
Khalid K .(2011). An overview of lactic acid bacteria. Int J Biosci. 1, (3) :1–13.
Kimaryo, V.M., Massawi, G.A., Olasupo, N.A., Holzapfel, W.H., 2000. The use of a starter culture in the fermentation of cassava for the production of Kivunde, a traditional Tanzanian food product. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 56, 179-190
Klaenhammer, TR, and W.M. de Vos (2011). An incredible scientific journey. The evolutionary tale of the lactic acid bacteria. In: Ledeboer A, Hugenholtz J, Kok J, Konings W, Wouters J, editors. The 10th LAB symposium. Thirty years of research on lactic acid bacteria. Rotterdam: 24 Media Labs;. pp. 1–11.
Kumar, M.; Behare, P.V.; Mohania, D.; Arora, S.; Kaur, A.; Nagpal, R.(2009). Health-promoting probiotic functional foods: Potential and prospects. Agro Food Ind. Hi-Tech 20, 29–33.
Laslo, E. Gyorgy E. and Cs. D. Andras (2020). Bioprotective potential of lactic acid Bacteria. Acta Univ. Sapientiae, Alimentaria, 13 118-130
Leroy, F., and De Vuyst, L. (2004). Lactic acid bacteria as functional starter cultures for the food fermentation industry. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 15, 67–78.
Ljungh, A. and Wadstrom, T. (2006). Lactic acid bacteria as probiotics. Curr. Issues Intest. Microbiol. 7:73–90.
Lomer, M. C. E., Parkes, G. C. and Sanderson, J. D. (2008). Review article: lactose intolerance in clinical practice-myths and realities. Aliment Pharmacol. Ther. 27:93–103.
Marco, M. L., Heeney, D., Binda, S., Cifelli, C. J., Cotter, P. D., Foligné, B., and Smid, E. J. (2017). Health benefits of fermented foods: Microbiota and beyond. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 44, 94–102.
Masood, M.I.; Qadir, M.I.; Jafr Hussain Shirazi, J.H.and Khan, I.U. (2011). Beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria on human beings (Review). Crit. Rev. Microbiol. 37, 91–98.
Mercenier, A., M€uller-Alouf, H. and Grangette, C. (2000). Lactic acid bacteria as live vaccines. Curr Issues Mol Biol 2, 17–25.
Mokoena, M P. T Mutanda and A O. Olaniran (2016). Perspectives on the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from African traditional fermented foods and beverages, Food & Nutrition Research, 60:1-13
Mozzi, F (2016). Lactic acid bacteria. In: Encyclopedia of food and health. Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp 501–508.
Mugala, J.K., Narvhus, J.A., Sørhaug, T., 2003. Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the preparation of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 83, 307-318.
Muyanja, C.M.B.K., Langsrud, T., Narvhus, J.A., 2004. The use of starter cultures in the fermentation of bushera: a Ugandan traditional fermented sorghum beverage. 650 Ugandan J. Agriculture Science. 9, 606-616.
Nagpal, R. Yadav, H. Puniya, A.K. Singh, K.Jain, S.and Marotta, F.(2007).Potential of probiotics and prebiotics for symbiotic functional dairy foods. Int. J. Probiotics 2, 75–84.
Nagpal, R. Kumar, A. Kumar, M. Behare, P.V.; Jain, S.Yadav, H.(2012). Probiotics, their health benefits and applications for developing healthier foods: A review. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 334, 1–15,
Nath, S. Chowdhury, S. Dora, K. C. and Sarkur, S (2014) Role of biopreservation in improving food safety and storage. International Journal Engineering Research and Applications 4(1) 26-32
Nwachukwu, E., O. K. Achi, I. O. Ijeoma (2010). Lactic acid bacteria in fermentation of cereals for the production of indigenous Nigerian foods African Journal of Food Science and Technology. 1(2) 021-026,
Nwodo U.U, Green, E, Okoh A.I. (2012). Bacterial exopolysaccharides: functionality and prospects.Int J Mol Sci 13(11): 14002–14015.
Obi, C.N., O.K. Achi, and E. Nwachukwu (2018). Bio-preservative activities of partially purified bacteriocin extracts of Lactobacillus mindensis TMW and Lactobacillus tucceti CECT 5920 isolated from Nigerian Fermented Foods European Journal of Nutrition & Food Safety, 266-283
Ogunbanwo, S.T, Sanni AI, and OniludeA .A (2003). Characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarumF1 and Lactobacillus brevis OG1. African J Biotechnology 28:219–227
Oguntoyinbo, F. A., Tourlomousis, P., Gasson, M. J., and Narbad, A. (2011). Analysis of bacterial communities of traditional fermented West African cereal foods using culture independent methods. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 145, 205–210.
Oguntoyinbo, F.A., and Narbad, A. (2015). Multifunctional properties of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from fermented cereal foods. Journal of Functional Foods, 17, 621-631.
Oguntoyinbo, F.A. and Narbad, A., (2012). Molecular characterization of lactic acid bacteria and in situ amylase expression during traditional fermentation of cereal foods. Food Microbiology 31, 254–262.
Okereke HC, Achi OK, Ekwenye UN, Orji FA (2012) Antimicrobial properties of probiotic bacteria from various sources. African Journal of Biotechnology 11(39):9416–9421
Oladipo I C D. O. AnwookoD I. Daramola F.B. Babalola G. T. Abidoye O.D. Olawale K M Iyanda et al.( 2017). Bioprotective potential of bacteriocins from some lactobacillus species isolated from foods J Microbiol Biotech Food Sci 6 (3) 900-904
Olaoye, O. A. and Ntuen, I. G. (2011). Spoilage and preservation of meat: a general appraisal and potential of lactic acid bacteria as biological preservatives’. Research J.Biotechnology 2:033–046.
Olasupo, N.A., Odunfa, S.A., Obayori, O.S., (2010). Ethnic African fermented foods. In:Tamang, J.P., Kailasapathy, K. (Eds.), Fermented Foods and Beverages of the World. CRC press, London, pp. 323–352
Oliveira, P.M., Zannini, E and Arendt, E.K., (2014). Cereal fungal infection, mycotoxins, and lactic acid bacteria mediated bioprotection: from crop farming to cereal products, Food Microbiology 37, 78-95
Oliveira, R.B.P., Oliveira, A.L. and Gloria, M.B.A.(2008). Screening of lactic acid bacteria from vacuum packaged beef for antimicrobial activity. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 39, 368-374.
Otero, M. C., Ocana, V. S and Macias, E. N. M., (2004). Bacterial surface characteristics applied to selection of probiotic microorganisms. Methods Molecular Biology 268, 435–440.
Özogul F and I. Hamed (2018) The importance of lactic acid bacteria for the prevention of bacterial growth and their biogenic amines formation: A review, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 58:10, 1660-1670,
Parada, J. L., Caron, C. R, Medeiros, A. B. P. and Soccol, C. R. (2007). Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: purification, properties and use as biopreservatives. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 50:512–542.
Park, S.; Kang, J.; Choi, S.; Park, H.; Hwang, E.; Kang, Y.; Kim, A.; Holzapfel, W.; Ji, Y. (2018).Cholesterol-lowering effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 and its influence on the gut microbiome and propionate level in a murine model. PLoS ONE 13, e0203150,
Parvez, S.; Malik, K.A.; Ah Kang, S.; Kim, H.Y.(2006) Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health. J. Appl. Microbiol. 100, 1171–1185.
Pouwels PH, Leer RJ, Shaw M, Heijne den Bak‑Glashouwer MJ, Tielen FD, Smit E, Martinez B, Jore J, Conway PL (1998). Lactic acid bacteria as antigen delivery vehicles for oral immunization purposes. Int J Food Microbiol.41:155–167.
Rattanachaikunsopon, P and Phumkhachorn, P. (2010). Lactic acid bacteria: their antimicrobial compounds and their uses in food production. Annals of Biol Res.1(4):218–228.
Ravyts, F., De Vuyst, L., and Leroy, F. (2012). Bacterial diversity and functionalities in food fermentations. Eng. Life Sci. 12, 356–367.
Ray, M., Ghosh, K., Singh, S., and Mondal, K. C. (2016). Folk to functional: An explorative overview of rice-based fermented foods and beverages in India. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 3, 5–18.
Reis J. A. A. T. Paula S. N. Casarotti A. L. B. Penna (2012). Lactic Acid Bacteria Antimicrobial Compounds: Characteristics and Applications Food Eng Rev 4:124–140
Rhee, S. J., Lee, J. E., & Lee, C. H. (2011). Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods. Microbial Cell Factories, 10, S5
Roberfroid, M. B., (2000). Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 71, 1682S–1687S
Ross, R.P, Morgan, S, Hill C. (2002). Preservation and fermentation: past, present and future. Intern J Food Microbiology ;79(1-2):3–16.
Ruiz Rodriguez, L., Bleckwedel, J., Eugenia Ortiz, M., Pescuma, M., Mozzi, F. (2007). Lactic acid bacteria. In: C. Wittmann, J. C. Liao (ed.), Industrial Biotechnology: Microorganisms. Weinheim, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Ruiz Rodríguez, L. G. F. Mohamed, J. Bleckwedel R Medina, L. De Vuyst E. M. H. and F. Mozzi (2019). Diversity and Functional Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated From Wild Fruits and Flowers Present in Northern Argentina Frontiers in Microbiology 10:1091.

Salminen, S.; Bouley, C.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Cummings, J.H.; Franck, A.; Gibson, G.R.; Isolauri, E.; Moreau, M.C.; Roberfroid, M.; Rowland, I.(1998). Functional food science and gastrointestinal physiology and function. Br. J. Nutr. 80 (Suppl. 1), S147–S171.
Sanni, A. I., Onilude, A.A., Ogunbanwo, S.T. and Smith, S.I. (1999). Antagonistic activity of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus spp. from ogi, an indigenous fermented food. Journal of Basic Microbiology, 39(3), 18-195.
Sanni, A.I., Morlon-Guyot, J.and Guyot, J.P. (2002). New efficient amylase-producing strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum isolated from different Nigerian traditional fermented foods. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 72,53-62.
Shi, LH, Balakrishnan K, Thiagarajah K, Mohd Ismail NI, Yin OS. (2016). Beneficial properties of probiotics. Trop Life Sci Res 27:73-90.
Siedler, S., Balti, R., Neves, A. R. (2019). Bioprotective mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria against fungal spoilage of food. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 56 138-146.
Singh V. P. (2018). Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review Open Veterinary Journal,. 8(1): 104-111
Soro-Yao, A. A. K. Brou, G. Amani, P. Thonart and K. M. Djè (2014). The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures during the Processing of Fermented Cereal-Based Foods in West Africa: A Review Tropical Life Sciences Research, 25(2), 81–100
Stanton C, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, van Sindern D. (2005). Fermented functional foods based on probiotics and their biogenic metabolites. Current Opinion Biotechnology; 16(2):198–203.
Steinkraus, K. H. (2002). Fermentations in world food processing. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 1, 23–32.
Tamang, J. P., Thapa, N., Tamang, B., Rai, A., and Chettri, R. (2015). Microorganisms in fermented foods and beverages. In J. P. Tamang (Ed.). Health benefits of fermented foods and beverages (pp. 1–110). CRC Press.
Tieking, M and Ganzle M.G. (2005). Exopolysaccharides from cereal associated lactobacilli. Trends Food Science Technology 16:79–84
Todorov, S D. and Holzapfel W H. (2015). Traditional cereal fermented foods as sources of functional microorganisms In Advances in Fermented Foods and Beverages Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science Technology and Nutrition pp 123-153
Twomey, D. Ross, RP, Ryan, M et al. (2002). Lantibiotics produced by lactic acid bacteria: structure, function and applications. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 82(1-4):165–185.
Vantsawa PA, Maryah UT, Timothy B.(2017). Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria with probiotic potential from fermented cow milk (nono) in UnguwarRimi Kaduna state Nigeria. Am J Mol Biol. 7:99-106.
Vieira-Dalodé., G., Madodé, Y.E., Hounhouigan, J., Jespersen, L., Jakobsen, M., 2008. Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts as inoculum enrichment for the production of gowé, a sour beverage from Benin. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 2, 179-186.
Wedajo, B. (2015). Lactic Acid Bacteria: benefits, selection criteria and probiotic potential in Fermented Food. J.Probiotics Health, 3, 2.
Yang, Y. J., Chuang, C. C., Yang, H. B., Lu, C. C. and Sheu, B. S. (2012). Lactobacillus acidophilus ameliorates H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation by inactivating the Smad7 and NFkB pathways. BMC Microbiol. 12:38.
Ye P, Wang J, Liu M, Li P, Gu Q. (2021). Purification and characterization of a novel bacteriocin from Lactobacillus paracasei ZFM54. LWT. Food Science and Technology143: 11-12.
Zhang Y, Zhu L, Dong P, et al., (2018). Bio-protective potential of lactic acid bacteria: Effect of Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus on changes of the microbial community in vacuum-packaged chilled beef. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 31(4):585–594.
Zheng, J.; Wittouck, S.; Salvetti, E.; Franz, C.M.; Harris, H.M.; Mattarelli, P.; Watanabe, K. (2020). A taxonomic note on the genus Lactobacillus: Description of 23 novel genera, emended description of the genus Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901, and union of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 70, 2782–2858.