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FIFTH PUBLICATION, JANUARY 2017. THE Bioscientist. vol.5

The Bioscientist: Vol. 5(1): 74-82, January 2017
Available online at http://www.bioscientistjournal.com
Nwadiaro and James-Damulak et al., 2017 Page 74

EXTRACTS OF AFRICAN BIRCH (Anogeissus leiocarpus), ZOGALE (Moringa oleifera)

*Nwadiaro, Patience and James-Damulak, Kuben K.

¹Department of Plant Science and Technology, University of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author’s Email: patnwadiaro@yahoo.com, Tel.:+2348037033206


Ethanol extracts of three selected Nigerian medicinal plants-Anogeissus leiocarpus (African
birch), Moringa oleifera (Zogale) and Anona senegalensis (African custard –apple) were
assessed for antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Phytochemical screening gave positive
tests for the following bioactive compounds: tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids,
Saponin, anthraquinones and steroids. The antimicrobial sensitivity test of the plant extracts was
determined in vitro using the agar well diffusion method against clinical isolates of Bacillus
subtilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton
mentagrophytes at concentrations from 400mg/ml to 50mg/ml, Gentamycin and Fluconazole
were used as standards. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum
bacteriocidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts were determined. The antioxidant property
was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT )
antioxidant assay method . Absorbance readings were taken at the wavelengths of 492nm and
620nm. Ascorbic acid was used as positive control and Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the
negative control. The MIC for A. senegalensis against both B. subtilis and E. coli was 12mg/ml
while A. leocarpus has an MIC of 50mg/ml for both microorganisms. The MIC for M. oleifera
was 6.2 mg/ml against B. subtilis and 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli. The MBC for A. leoicarpus
was 100mg/ml for both B. subtilis and E. coli. A. senegalensis exhibited an MBC of 25mg/ml for
both B. subtilis and E. coli while Moringa Oleifera had an MBC 25mg/ml against E. coli and
12.5 mg/ml against B. subtilis showing a higher activity. At the lowest concentration of
0.625mg/ml, A. leiocarpus had absorbance of 0.37 and 0.41 at 492nm and 620nm wavelength
respectively. A. senegalensis had absorbance of 0.18 and 0.17 while absorbance of 0.12 and 0.11
were recorded for M. oleifera at 492nm and 620nm wavelengths respectively. The absorbance of
Ascorbic acid at 0.625 mg/ml was 0.5 at 492nm wavelength and 0.36 at 620nm wavelength. The
result indicated that the activity of all the extracts were best at 620nm wavelength. The
antioxidant activities M. oleifera- and A. senegalensis are comparable to that of ascorbic acid but
ascorbic acid has a better antioxidant activity with an absorbance of 0.36 at the lowest
Keywords: Nwadiaro and James-Damulak, 2017

© 2013. Journal of Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,

P. M. B. 5025 Awka, Nigeria.

email: thebioscientist@unizik.edu.ng

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