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Numerous plants and plant metabolites have proven to be very potent in treating diseases and modifying physiological processes. This study investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Xylopia aethiopica fruit on the reproductive system of mature virgin female Wistar rats. Aqueous extract of Xylopia aethiopica fruit was obtained by hot water maceration. Fifteen female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups(A, B, and C) of five animals per group, per cage. Group A served as the standard control group and was administered distilled water. In contrast, groups B and C served as the treatment groups and were administered 150and 300mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively, for 15days orally. The effect of the plant extract on; reproductive hormonal profile (oestradiol, progesterone, and progesterone-estrogen ratio), reproductive organ and body weights, vaginal cytology, and reproductive histology were assessed. All the rats were at the follicular phase before and after treatment. All the measured parameters except oestradiol levels were statistically insignificant (p >0.05). Serum oestradiol levels increased significantly (p < 0.05)in the 300mg/kg body weight group (68.67 ± 0.20 pg/ml) when compared with the control group (46.13 ± 5.07 pg/ml).The work thus showed that the plant could affect a female’s reproductive cycle by enhancing oestradiol levels at the follicular phase.
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