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N. A. Mohammad
F.B. Muhammed
F.B. Muhhamed
A. O. Eteng
M.S. Zainab
U. Bayero
T.A. Adesakin
A. Yusuf
M. Abubakar


This study was conducted to ascertain the toxicity of commercial-grade detergent (Viva) on fish antioxidant response and histopathological alterations using Clarias gariepinus juvenile. The Fish specimens were exposed to acute concentrations (0.0, 0.44, 48, 0.52, 0.56 and 0.60 mg/l) and sub-lethal concentrations (0.0, 0.0289, 0.0385 and 0.0577 mg/L) of the detergent (Viva) for 96hour lethal concentration (LC50= 0.577 mg/l) and 21 days. Fish specimens were sampled for antioxidant response and histopathological lesions in the liver tissues at the end of the acute and sublethal. A significant increase in the Catalase (CAT), Melandealdehyde (MDA), and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were observed during the 96 hours of exposure when compared with the control with an increase in concentration. While the sub-lethal exposure showed a significant decrease in the liver enzyme activities of CAT and SOD and an increase in MDA across the treatment groups. The liver histopathological alterations of the fish revealed normal hepatocytes with a central round nucleus in the control group to hepatic necrosis, vacuolation, hepatocytes degeneration, and congestion of sinusoid across the treatment groups.  This study indicated that the alterations in liver antioxidant response and histopathological alterations were induced by the detergent, suggesting that these parameters can thus be used for ecotoxicological risk assessment of commercial-grade detergents on aquatic organisms.

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Mohammad, N. A., Muhammed, F., Muhhamed, F., Eteng, A. O., Zainab, M., Bayero, U., Adesakin, T., Yusuf, A., & Abubakar, M. (2022). PATHOLOGIC LESIONS AND ANTIOXIDANT RESPONSE IN THE LIVER OF AFRICAN CATFISH CLARIAS GARIEPINUS (BURCHELL, 1822) JUVENILE EXPOSED TO COMMERCIAL-GRADE DETERGENT. The Bioscientist Journal, 10(3), 292-305. Retrieved from


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