Main Article Content

S. C. Onyeiwu
V. J. Umoh
J. B. Ameh


Underground water pollution by petroleum hydrocarbon may affect the quality of drinking water and water for other domestic uses, posing a threat to the aquatic ecosystem. This study was aimed at providing data on the physicochemical characteristics of groundwater in the vicinity of Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company (KRPC), for bioremediation strategy in the area. Groundwater collected at six (6) sites were analysed for physicochemical characteristics, using standard methods. The village well water was slightly acidic (5.67–6.17), while the monitoring wells were slightly alkaline (7.14-7.67). Temperature was found to be within the range favourable for Bioremediation. The dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in the sites (6.70 – 7.69mg/l) are not limiting to hydrocarbon biodegradation. Low levels of nitrate and phosphate are limiting for bioremediation. High sulphate concentration in one of the dump sites wells (350mg/l) is indicative of pollution and corrosion problems. High NTU, chloride concentrations, BOD Levels and electrical conductivity are indicative of pollution.

Article Details

How to Cite


Adeniyi, O. D., Adediran, A. A., Adeniyi M. I., Yahya, M.D., Afolabi, E. A., Adebayo, I.T., Ojo, A. A., Efeovbokhan, V., Ayoola, A. A., and Ojewumi, M. E. (2017). Evaluation of the impact of Kaduna refinery effluent on River Romi. Nigerian Journal of Technology Research, 12 (1): 17-21.
Adeyinka, J.S. and Uriem, K.C.N (2001). Assessment and determination of bioremediation efficiency in a post crude oil soil pollution treatment. Tropical Journal of Environmental Research, 3: 181 – 187.
Amadi, A.N., Okoye, N. O., Alabi, A. D., Aminu Tukur and Angwa, E. M. (2014). Quality Assessment of Soil and Groundwater near Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company, Northwest Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 3 (6):884 – 893.
Adnan, B., Al-Hawash, M., Dragh, A., Shue, L., Ahmad, A., Hayder, A.A., Yiaogu Z., and Fuying, M, (2018). Principles of Microbial degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in the environment. The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 44(2): 71-76.
Al-Amin, M.A. (2013). Energy production and environmental concerns in Nigeria: The case of Kaduna Petroleum Refinery on its Host Community. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy 3(10): 69-77.
Aniefiok, E.I., Thomas, A. H., Obadimu, C. O., Ekpedeme, R.A., and Iniemem, J. I. (2018). Petroleum Hydrocarbons Contamination of Surface water and Groundwater in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health, 612: 51-61.
Atlas, R.M and Bartha, R. (1992), Hydrocarbon Biodegradation and Oil spill bioremediation. Advances in Microbial Ecology, 12: 287 – 338.
Bako, S. P., Chukwunonso, D., Adamu, A. K. (2008). Bioremediation of refinery effluent by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Penicillium janthinellium. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 6(3): 46-60.
Bamforth, S.M., and Singleton, I. (2005). Bioremediation of Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Current knowledge and future directions. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 80(7) 723-736.
Benka-Coker, M. O., and Olumagin, A. (1996). Effects of waste drilling fluid on bacterial isolates from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Bioresource Technology, 55(3); 175-179.
Bisht, S., Pandey, P., Bargava, B., Sharma, S., Kumar, V and Sharma, K. D. (2015). Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using rhizosphere technology. Brazillian Journal of Microbiology, 46(1): 7-21.
Boopathy, R. (2000) Factors limiting bioremediation technologies. Bioresource Technology, 74 (1): 63-67.
Breedreld, G.D., and Sparrevik, M. (2000). Nutrient Limited biodegradation of PAHS in various soil strata at a creosote contaminated site. Biodegradation,11(6): 391 -399.
Buggu, L., Yusufu-Alfa, F., and Abenu, A. (2020). Effects of Effluents on the Quality of River Rido, Kaduna- State Nigeria. Ghana Journal of Geography, 12 (1): 159-170.
Ebadi, A., KhoshKhulgg, S., Olamaee, M., Hashemi, M., Ghorbani, N.R. (2017). Effective bioremediation of petroleum-polluted saline soil by a surfactant producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa consortium. Journal of Advanced Research, 8(6): 627-633.
Floodgate, G.D. (1979) Nutrient Limitation in Microbial degradation of Pollutants in Marine Environment (A.W. Bourquin and P.H. Pritichard, eds), EPA -66019-79-012, Environmental Research Laboratory Gulf Breeze, pp 107 – 119.
Ijah, U.J.J., Safiyanu, H.S and Abioye, O.P. (2008) Comparative study of biodegradation of crude oil in soil amended with chicken droppings and NPK Fertilizer. Science WorldJournal, 3(2): 63 – 67.
King, R.B., Long, G.M and Sheldon, J.K. (1997). Practical Environmental Bioremediation: The Field Guide Lewis Publishers. New York, pp 13-29
Khaled, M.G., Selah, A.M., Majid, A.A. (2016). Bioremediation of diesel fuel by fungal consortium using statistical experimental designs. Polish Journal of Environmental Study 25(1): 97-106.
Khan M.A.I, Biswas, B., Smith, E., Naidu, R., Megharaj, M. (2018). Toxicity assessment of fresh and weathered petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil. A review Chemosphere, 212: 755-767
Leahy J.G. Colwell R.R. (1990). Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons in the environment. Microbiological Reviews, 54:305-315.
Mahjoubi, M., Cappello, S., Souissi, Y., Jaouani, A., and Cheriff, A. (2018). Microbial Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon- Contaminated Marine Environments. Web of Science 72207.
Margesin, R., and Schinner, F. (2001). Bioremediation (Natural Attenuation and biostimulation of Diesel-Oil-contaminated soil in an ALPINE Glacier Skiing Area. Applied and Environmental microbiology, 67 (7):3127-3133
Mohammed, N; Allayla, R.I, Nakhla, G.F. Farooq S., and Husain T. (1996). State – of-the-art review of bioremediation studies. Journal of Environmental Science Health, A31(7):1547-1574.
Mohamadi, B., Xie, Z., and Liu, F. (2015) ‘GIS Based Oil Spill Risk Assessment Model for the Niger Delta’s Vegetation’. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology, 14(3) 545-552.
Mohor, C., Yu, F., Fang, C., Aaron. A. J., Giovanni, P., and Xiaozhou, Z. (2021). Proteomic study of Desulfovibrioferrophilis 1S5 reveals overexpressed extracellular multiheme cytochrome associated with severe microbiologically influenced corrosion. Scientific Reports 11(1). Doi; 10.1038/s41598-021-95060-0.
Nwachukwu S.C.U., James P., and Gurney, T.R. (2001). Inorganic nutrient utilization by ‘adapted’ Pseudomonas putida strain used in the bioremediation of agricultural soil polluted with crude petroleum. Journal of Environmental Biology, 22(3): 153-162.
Nweke, C.O., and Okpokwasili, G.C., (2003). Electrical Conductivity and PH Dynamics during bioremediation of Drilling Fluid- Contaminated soil. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology, 17 (2): 115 -124.
Obukohwo, K., Vantsawa, P.A., Dibal D.M., Ijah U.J.J., Onwumere G.B. and Ndibe T.O. (2020). Screening of Fungi isolated from Kaduna Refinery effluent and Romi river and their potential for bioremediation. Journal ofApplied Science andEnvironmental Management, 24(9): 1655 – 1662.
Olobaniyi, S.B., and Omo-Irabor O.O. (2016). ‘Environmental Impact Assessment of Selected Oil Production Facilities in Parts of Niger Delta, Nigeria.Journal of Water Resources and Protection, 8(2) 237-242.
Okonkwo, C.N., Kumar, L., Taylor, S. (2015). The Niger Delta Wetland ecosystem. What threatens it and why should we protect it’. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 9(5); 451 -463.
Okpokwasili, G.S.C. (2005). Bioremediation potential entrepreneurship opportunities in Nigeria. Paper presented at the First National Biotechnology Summit, Abuja.
Philp, J.C., Bamforth, S.M., Singleton, I., and Atlas, R. M. (2005). Environmental Pollution and restoration. A role for bioremediation. In: Applied Microbial Solutions for Real-World Environmental Clean-up. Edited by Ronald M. Atlas and J.M Philp. ASM Press Washington D.C. pp 1-48.
Qianwei, Li., Jicheng Liu., Gadd, M. G. (2020). Fungal bioremediation of soil co-contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and toxic metals. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 104: 8999-9008.
Qin, X., Tang, J. L. D., and Zang, Q. (2012). Effect of salinity on the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a saline alkaline soil. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 55 (3): 210 -217.
Smith, M.T., (2010) Advances in Understanding Benzene Health Effects Susceptibility. Annual Review of Public Health, 31(1) 133-148
Theresa, M.M, Kyle, K., Kerrm, Y., Hung I., Jack T.T., Anna, S.T., Cecily A.F., Valerie, H., Dickson L. L, and Alan, G.S. (1998). Comparison of toxicity detected by five bioassays during bioremediation of spiked soils. Environmental Toxicology and water quality, 13 (2): 117 -126.
Uzoekwe, S. A. and Oghosanine, F.A. (2011). The effect of refinery and petrochemical effluent on water quality of Ubeji creek Warri, Southern Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of environmental studies and management 4(2): 107-108.
Roy, A., Sar, P., Sarkar, J., Dutta, P.S., Gupta, A., Mohapatra, B., Pal, S., and Kazy, S.K (2018). Petroleum hydrocarbon rich oil refinery sludge of North-East India harbours anaerobic, fermentative, Sulphate-reducing, Syntrophic and Methanogenic microbial populations BMC Microbiology 18,
World Health Organization (2006). Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality 1st Addendum to the Third Edition Volume 1. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Recommendations, pp 491-493.