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Soil seed bank is a natural storage for seeds deposited at various soil depths. In this study, the soil seed bank of a yam field and fallow field within the University of Port Harcourt were examined using seedling emergence method to identify and record the floristic composition of both fields through their emergent seedlings. Soil samples from eight points for each field totaling sixteen points were collected and at three soil depths (0-5cm, 5-10cm, and 10-15cm). The soil samples were transferred to Centre for Ecological Studies, University of Port Harcourt for preparation and monitored for four weeks. Statistical analysis was done for the data generated using one-way ANOVA in addition to their graphical representation. From the result, the fallow field showed higher species abundance (emergence seedlings) but was not significantly different at a 5% level of probability from the yam field at all depths. Species diversity index revealed high diversity at 10cm depth for yam field and 5cm depth for the fallow field while the lowest was at 15cm depth for the fallow field. Agricultural tillage of the yam field led to lower species density, abundance, and composition due to seed destruction and deepening of seeds down the soil depths. Soil seed bank provided the vegetation history of the fields and information necessary for weed management.
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