Comparative Studies on the Nutrient Composition and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf, Pulp, and Seed Extracts of Jack-Fruit Tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus)

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R. O. Umennadi
I. O. Igwilo
P. U. Umennadi
F. C. Nweze
B. C. Lebechukwu
K. K. Asogwa
P. U. Ezeobi

Abstract

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is cherished for its popularity as a delectable fresh treat. Beyond its culinary appeal, jackfruit leaves, seeds, and pulps hold significance for their therapeutic attributes. Standardized techniques were employed to evaluate nutrient and phytochemical compositions. Antioxidant activities were examined through the DPPH, FRAP and reducing power assays, and in-vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Jackfruit leaves exhibited significantly higher levels of crude protein (19.25±0.62%) and carbohydrates (30.41± 0.31%), while jackfruit leaves had elevated levels of crude fiber (4.18±0.03%) and ash (4.13±0.06%). The jackfruit pulp is high in potassium (2880.82± 118.10mg/100g) and vitamin C(5.40±0.40mg/100g). Conversely, the leaves displayed significantly higher concentrations of Zinc, Calcium, Manganese, and Iron (1830.59±86.34, 141.18±3.49, 80.33±2.01 and 20.24±0.72 mg/100g respectively). Jackfruit pulp has lower quantities of phytic acid, oxalate, alkaloids, tannin, and flavonoids (0.18%, 47.25mg/100g, 0.38%, 3.06mg/TAE/100g, and 1.35mg/100g respectively). In contrast, jackfruit seeds exhibited higher levels of phytic acid (0.30±0.04%) and oxalate (94.5±19.10mg/100g), while the leaves excelled in alkaloids (0.48±0.01%), tannin (7.61±0.27mg/TAE/100g), and flavonoids (3.10±0.13mg/100g). The leaves had the highest flavonoid (3.10±0.13mg/100g), tannin (7.61±0.27mg/TAE/100g), and alkaloid (0.48±0.01%) as well as the highest antioxidant activity, as evidenced by the FRAP assay and reducing power assay. The percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity reached an impressive 90.1%. The abundance of phytochemicals in the plant suggests their potential health benefits in combating non-communicable diseases.

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Umennadi, R. O., Igwilo, I. O., Umennadi, P. U., Nweze, F. C., Lebechukwu, B. C., Asogwa, K. K., & Ezeobi, P. U. (2023). Comparative Studies on the Nutrient Composition and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf, Pulp, and Seed Extracts of Jack-Fruit Tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The Bioscientist Journal, 11(3), 270-288. https://doi.org/10.54117/the_bioscientist.v11i3.158
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