Comparative Studies on the Nutrient Composition and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf, Pulp, and Seed Extracts of Jack-Fruit Tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus)

Main Article Content

R. O. Umennadi
I. O. Igwilo
P. U. Umennadi
F. C. Nweze
B. C. Lebechukwu
K. K. Asogwa
P. U. Ezeobi


Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is cherished for its popularity as a delectable fresh treat. Beyond its culinary appeal, jackfruit leaves, seeds, and pulps hold significance for their therapeutic attributes. Standardized techniques were employed to evaluate nutrient and phytochemical compositions. Antioxidant activities were examined through the DPPH, FRAP and reducing power assays, and in-vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Jackfruit leaves exhibited significantly higher levels of crude protein (19.25±0.62%) and carbohydrates (30.41± 0.31%), while jackfruit leaves had elevated levels of crude fiber (4.18±0.03%) and ash (4.13±0.06%). The jackfruit pulp is high in potassium (2880.82± 118.10mg/100g) and vitamin C(5.40±0.40mg/100g). Conversely, the leaves displayed significantly higher concentrations of Zinc, Calcium, Manganese, and Iron (1830.59±86.34, 141.18±3.49, 80.33±2.01 and 20.24±0.72 mg/100g respectively). Jackfruit pulp has lower quantities of phytic acid, oxalate, alkaloids, tannin, and flavonoids (0.18%, 47.25mg/100g, 0.38%, 3.06mg/TAE/100g, and 1.35mg/100g respectively). In contrast, jackfruit seeds exhibited higher levels of phytic acid (0.30±0.04%) and oxalate (94.5±19.10mg/100g), while the leaves excelled in alkaloids (0.48±0.01%), tannin (7.61±0.27mg/TAE/100g), and flavonoids (3.10±0.13mg/100g). The leaves had the highest flavonoid (3.10±0.13mg/100g), tannin (7.61±0.27mg/TAE/100g), and alkaloid (0.48±0.01%) as well as the highest antioxidant activity, as evidenced by the FRAP assay and reducing power assay. The percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity reached an impressive 90.1%. The abundance of phytochemicals in the plant suggests their potential health benefits in combating non-communicable diseases.

Article Details

How to Cite
Umennadi, R. O., Igwilo, I. O., Umennadi, P. U., Nweze, F. C., Lebechukwu, B. C., Asogwa, K. K., & Ezeobi, P. U. (2023). Comparative Studies on the Nutrient Composition and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf, Pulp, and Seed Extracts of Jack-Fruit Tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The Bioscientist Journal, 11(3), 270-288.


Amadi, A.C., Ihemeje, A., and Afam-Anene, O.C. Nutrient and Phytochemical Composition of Jackfruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus) Pulp, Seeds and Leaves. Int. J. Innovative Food, Nut. &Sust. Agric. 6(3):27-32, 2018
AOAC (2003). Official method 999. 10. Lead, cadmium, zinc, copper and iron in foods, atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave digestion, first action, 1999. NMKL-AOAC method.
AOAC, (1990). Association of Analytical Chemistry. Methods for Phytochemical Analyses. Pp 2318-2391.
AOAC, (1999). Association of Analytical Chemistry. Methods for Proximate Analysis. Pp 2217-2280.
Barros, L; Ferreira,M.J;Queiros, B; Ferreira, I. C. F. R and Batista, P; (2007). Total phenols, ascorbic acid, á-carotene and lycopene in Portuguese wild edible mushrooms and their antioxidant activities, Food Chemistry.103:1314-419.
Chrips, N. R., Balasingh, R. G. S., & Kingston, C. (2008). Nutrient constituents of neglected varieties of Artocarpusheterophyllus Lam. from Kanyakumari district, South India. Journal of Basic and Applied Biology, 2, 36−37.
Chua, L. Y. W., Chua, B. L., Figiel, A., Chong, C. H., Wojdyło, A., Szumny, A., and Łyczko, J. (2019a). "Drying of Phyla nodiflora leaves Antioxidant activity, volatile and phytosterol content, energy consumption, and quality studies," Processes 7(4), Article number 210. DOI: 10.3390/pr7040210
Ebrahimzadeh, M. A;Seyed, M. N; Seyed, F. N; Fatemeh, B. and Ahmad, R. B. (2009). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of H. officinalis, L. augustifolius, V. odorata, B. hyrcana, and C. speciosum. Pak. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 23(1): 29-34.
Hamrouni-Sellami, I., Rahali, F. Z., Rebey, I. B., Bourgou, S., Limam, F., and Marzouk, B. (2013). "Total phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) plants as affected by different drying methods," Food Bioprocess Technology 6, 806-817. DOI: 10.1007/s11947-012-0877-7.
Harborne, J. B. (1995). Comparative Biochemistry of the Flavonoids. Academic Press, New York. Pp 383.
Ijeh, I.I., Ejike, E.C.C., Nkwonta, O.M. and Njoku, B.C. (2010). Effects of traditional processing techniques on the nutritional and phytochemical composition of African breadfruit (Treculiaafricana) seeds. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management, 4, 169-173.
Isichei, M.O. and Achinewhu, S.C. (1990).The nutritional evaluation of fermented fluted pumpkin seed (Telfairiaoccidentalis). Discovery and Innovation, 2: 62-65.
Jagtap, U. B., Panaskar, S. N., & Bapat, V. A. (2010). Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and phenol content in jackfruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus Lam.) fruit pulp. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 65, 99−104.
Kaplan, N.M. (1998). Clinical Hypertension, 7th ed.: 8-51
Kirk, R.; and Sawyer, R. (1991). Pearson's Composition and Analysis of Foods, 9th edition. Longman Scientific and Technical, pp 647-648.
Klein, B.P; and Perry, A.K. (1982). Ascorbic acid and vitamin A activity in selected vegetables from different geographical areas of the United States. Journal of Food Science; 47: 941-945
Obadoni, B.O; and Ochuko, P.O. (2002). Phytochemical Studies and Comparative Efficacy of the Crude Extracts of some Haemostatic Plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 8(2): 203-208.
Oboh, G. (2005). Effect of blanching on the antioxidant property of some tropical green leafy vegetables. Food Science and Technology, 38(5): 513-517.
Ocloo, F.C.K., Bansa, D., Boatin, R., Adom, T. and Agbemavor, W.S. (2010). Physicochemical, functional, and pasting characteristics of flour produced from Jackfruits (Artocarpusheterophyllus) seeds. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1(5), 903-908.
Ojimelukwe, P.C., Okudu, H.O. and Korie, O.V. (2012). Comparative Evaluation of the Nutrients and Phytochemical Composition of Occimumgratissimum (Nchu-Anwu) and Lasiantheraafricana (Edifan) Leaves. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences, 33(1), 53-56.
Ojwang, R.A., Muge, E.K., Mbatia, B.W., Mwanza, B.K., and Ogoyi, D.O. (2018). Compositional elemental, phytochemical, and antioxidant characterization of jackfruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus) pulp and seed from selected regions in Kenya and Uganda. European journal of medicinal plants, 23 (3): 1-12.
Okafor, O. E., Ezeanyika, L.U.S. and Ujowundu, C.U.O (2015). Effects of Traditional Processing Techniques on the Proximate and Mineral Compositions of Jack Fruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus) Seeds. 2015 International Conference on Food Nutrition, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Osagie, A.U. (1998). Antinutritional Factors. In: Nutritional Quality of Plant Foods. Ambik Press Ltd, Benin City, Nigeria. Pp. 1-40; 221-244
Padmarajaiah, N; Ramanathapura, A.; and Hemmige, S.Y. (2002). Spectrophotometric determination of folic acid in pharmaceutical preparations by coupling reactions with iminodibenzyl or 3-aminophenol or sodium molybdate-pyrocatechol. Analytical Biochemistry307(2):316-321
Rahman, A. K. M. M., Huq, E., Mian, A. J., & Chesson, A. (1995). Microscopic and chemical changes occurring during the ripening of two forms of jackfruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus L.). Food Chemistry, 52, 405−410.
Rahman, M.A., Nahar, N., Mian, A. J. and Moshiuzzaman, M. (1999). Variation of carbohydrate composition of two forms of fruit from jack tree (Artocarpusheterophyllus L) with maturity and climatic condition. Food Chemistry, 65: 91-97.
Rutkowski, M;Grzegorczyk, K;Gendek, E; and Kedziora, J.(2006). Laboratory convenient modification of Bessey method for vitamin A determination in blood plasma Journal of Physiological Pharmacology.57 (2):221
Siddappa, G.S. (1957). Development of products from jackfruit ‐ canned jackfruit, frozen canned jackfruit, and jackfruit jam. Journal of Science and Indian Research, 9(11):166–99.
Steel, R.G.D. and Torrie, J.H. (1960). Principle and Procedures of Statistics McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc. New York
Yerima, B.I; and Adamu, H.M. (2011).’’Proximate chemical analysis of nutritive contents of Jujube (Ziziphusmauritiana) seeds’’. International Journal of the Physical Sciences 6(36): 8079 – 8082
Yi, W., and Wetzstein, H. Y. (2011). "Effects of drying and extraction conditions on the biochemical activity of selected herbs," HortSciencec 46(1), 70-73. DOI: 10.21273/HORTSCI.46.1.70
Young and Greaves. (1940). Laboratory Handbook of Methods of Food Analysis, Leonard Hill, London. Pp. 217-273

Most read articles by the same author(s)