Main Article Content
The effects of season on the physico-chemical parameters were investigated at Imo River to
determine its suitability for drinking and usage for domestic purposes. Sampling was conducted in
rainy and dry seasons; January to August, 2017. Water samples were collected from four stations
(Obowo, Mbaise, Umuokpara and Okpala) along the river and analyzed using standard methods.A
total of seventeen physico-chemical characteristics were analyzed. These include pH, transparency,
water temperature, conductivity, turbidity and total alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). Others are Chloride, Sulphate, Phosphate, Nitrate, Calcium,
Magnesium, Potassium and Sodium. Results showed that eight of the parameters (transparency,
conductivity, turbidity, TDS, mean concentrations of Chlorine, Phosphate, Calcium and Sodium)
exhibited significant seasonal variations. All the parameters had higher values during the rainy
season except temperature, transparency and concentration of metals. All the parameters were
within the World Health Organization’s (WHO) and Federal Environmental Protection
Agency’s(FEPA) prescribed limit for drinking water, thus the water can be said to be of good
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
State, Nigeria. African Journal of
Environmental Science and
Technology, 4(3): 145-148
Agarwal, A. and Manish, S. (2011). Assessment of Pollution by Physicochemical water parameters using regression analysis: A Case study of Gagan River at MoradabadIndia. Advances in Applied Science Research, 2 (2): 185-189
American Public Health Association (APHA). (2005). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, (21st Ed). Washington, D. C., pp. 1368.
Aoyagui, A. S. M. and Bonnecker, C. C.(2004). Rotifers in different environments of the upper Parana River floodplain (Brazil): richness, abundance and the relationship to connectivity. Hydrobiologia, 522: 281-290.
Benethan, I. A. (2003). Microbiology with Health care Application. Star Publishing Company, USA. Pp 111- 125
Dey, Kallol, Mohapatra, S. C., Misra, Bidyabati. (2005). Assessment of water quality parameters of the river Brahmani at Rourkela. Journal of Industrial Pollution Control,
Federal Environmental Protection Agency(FEPA) (1991). Guidelines and Standards for Environment
Pollution Control in Nigeria. Federal environmental protection agency, Federal Republic of Nigeria.
Hossain, A. (2001). Evaluation of Surface water Quality: Acase study on Surma River, B.Sc. Engineering
Thesis, Civiland Environmental Engineering Department, ShahjalalUniversity.
Iscen, C. F., Özgür, E. O., Ilhan, S., Arslan, N., Yilmaz, V. and Ahiska, S. (2008). Application of multivariate statistical techniques in the assessment of surface water quality in UluabatLakr, Turkey Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 144 (1-3): 269-276.
Makwe, M. and Chup, C. U. (2013). Seasonal Variation in Physicochemical properties of groundwater around KaruAkattoir. Ethiopian Journal of
Environmental Studies and
Management, 6 (5): 489 - 497.
Mandal, P., Upadhyay, R. and Hasan, A. (2010). Seasonal and spatial variation of Yamuna River water quality in Delhi, India. Environmental
Modeling and Assessment, 170 (1–4): 661–670.
Ngabirano, H., Byanugisha, D. and Ntambi, E. (2016). Effects of Seasonal
Variations in Physical Parameters on Quality of Gravity Flow Water in
Kaba.leDistrit, Uganda. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 8: 1297-1309
Omoigberale, M.O. and Ogbeibu, A.E. (2007). Environmental impacts of oil exploration on the Crustacean Zooplankton of Osse River,
Southern Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Science Industrial Research, 50:
Prat, N. and Munne, A. (2000). Water use and quality and stream flow in a Mediterranean stream. Water
Research, 34(15): 3876-3881
Tobiszewski, M., Tsakovski, S., Simeonov, V., Namiesnik, J. (2010).Surfacewater quality assessment by the use of combination of multivariatestatistical classification and expert information.
Unanam, A.E. and Akpan, A.W.(2006). Analysis of physicochemical characteristics of some freshwater bodies in Essien Udim Local Government area of Akwa Ibom
State, Nigeria. In: Proceeding of the
21st Annual Conference of the Fisheries Society of Nigeria (FI50N) Calabar, 13th -17th November, 2006.
Venkatramanan, S., Chung, S. Y., Lee, S. Y. and Park, N. (2014). Assessment of river water quality via environmentric multivariate statistical tools and water quality index: A case study ofNakdong River Basin,
Korea.Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 9 (2): 125–132.
WHO, Geneva (2008). Guideline for drinking water quality. 2nd edition Recommendation. World Health
Organization. 1, pp 30-113