Evaluation of the Grain and Malting Properties of Four Recently Improved Sorghum Varieties

Main Article Content

I. F. Okonkwo
N. C. N. Okoro
M. I. Izundu

Abstract

Improving the utilization of sorghum in beer brewing has led lots of researchers carrying out studies on different varieties of sorghum. The aim of the study is to evaluate the malting properties of the four recently improved sorghum varieties (Samsorg 46, 47, 48 and 49). In this study, four recently improved Nigerian sorghum varieties were subjected to several tests, these include determination of a thousand corn weight, moisture content, germinative capacity, germinative energy and water sensitivity, tannin, Protein estimation, cold water extract (CWE), hot water extract (HWE), diastatic power and amylase activities using standard methods. The results obtained showed variations among the sorghum varieties in most of the parameters assessed. Samsorg 49 gave the highest weight (34.1g), for germinative capacity, variety Samsorg 46 gave the highest value (99.5%), Samsorg 46 and 48 were the most water sensitive (98%), Samsorg 46 gave the highest value for CWE (50.60%) while Samsorg 49 gave highest value for HWE (284.86%). The four grains had no tannins present. Samsorg 46 (10.02%) had the highest protein content while Samsorg 48 had the least (9.25%). The malt quality of the sorghum varieties increased with increase in germination days. Moisture content and protein content of the malts decreased with germination days, with Samsorg 48 having the lowest value (8.4%) and (6.03%) respectively. CWE, HWE and diastatic power, increased as the germination days increased with highest value in SAMSORG 46 (50.60%), Samsorg 49 (284.86%) and Samsorg 48 (14.23oL) respectively. More works need to be done, to completely evaluate their overall suitability, with various enzyme formulations to produce mashes and wort with higher brewing potentials.

Article Details

How to Cite
Okonkwo, I. F., Okoro, N. C. N., & Izundu, M. I. (2021). Evaluation of the Grain and Malting Properties of Four Recently Improved Sorghum Varieties. The Bioscientist Journal, 9(1), 51-63. Retrieved from https://bioscientistjournal.com/index.php/The_Bioscientist/article/view/82
Section
Articles

References

Agu, R. C. and Okeke, B. C. (1991). Studies on the Effect of Potassium Bromate on Some Malting Properties of Nigerian Millet (Penniserum Maiwa). Process Biochemistry,26: 89-92.
Agu, R. C. and Palmer, G. H. (1997). Quality Assessment of Different Sorghum Varieties. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 103: 25–29.
AOAC (1980). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemists, Washington D.C.
Archibong, E. J. and Onuora, S. C. (2010). Improvements of Wort Extracts of Some Sorghum Varieties Using Raw Starch Degrading Enzymes from Aspergillus Carbonarius. Journal of Applied Sciences, 13(1): 8959-8966.
Archibong, E. J., Irondi, C. R., Ezemba, C. C., Awah, N. S. and Ozuah, C. L.(2015). Extraction of Enzymes from Improved Sorghum Cultivars (SSV98001, SSV98002 and SK5912) and their Applications in the Mashing Studies of a Nigerian Local White Sorghum Variety. International Journal of Current Research in Biosciences and Plant Biology, 2(8): 20-28.
Arends, A. M., Fox, G. P., Henry, R. J., Marschke, R. J. and Symons, M. H. (1995). Genetic and Environmental Variation in the Diastatic Power of Australian Barley. Journal Cereal Science, 21(1):63–70.
ASBC (1958) American Society of Brewing Chemist Sub-Committee Report, Proceedings of American Society of Brewing Chemist. 2:11-14.
Bamforth, C. W. (2002) Standards of Brewing: A Practical Approach to Consistency and Excellence, Brewers Publications, Boulder, Co. pp 2-4.
Dewar, J., Taylor, J.R.N., and Berjak, P. (1997). Effect of Germination Conditions, With Optimised Steeping on Sorghum Malt Quality–With Particular Reference to Free Amino Nitrogen. Journal of Institute of Brewing103:171–175.
DAF, Department of Agriculture and Food (2007). Government of Western Australia. Effect of Weather Damage on Barley Quality. Available From: Http://Www.Agric.Wa.Gov.Au/Pc_92004.Html (Accessed June 2014).
Ejeta, G., and Knoll, J. E. (2007). Marker-Assisted Selection in Sorghum, in Genomic-Assisted Crop Improvement Genomics Applications in Crops. Varshney, R. K., and Tuberosa, R. (Eds.). Springer. 2: 187–205.
Etokakpan, O. U. (1992). Amylase Potential and Wort Fermenting Components of Nigerian Sorghum and Barley. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 8: 287-289.
Etokakpan, O. U. (2004). Changes in Sorghum Malt during Storage. Journal of Institute of Brewing and Distilling. 110(3):189–192.
Etokakpan, O. U. and Palmer, G. H. (1990). Sorghum Brewing Using Sweet Potato Enzymic Flour. Journal of the Institution of Brewing, 96:89-91.
Ezeogu, L. I., and Okolo, B. N. (1994) Effects of Final Warm Water Steep and Air-Rest Cycles on Malt Properties of Three Improved Nigerian Sorghum Cultivars, Journal of Institute of Brewing, 100, 335–338.
Ezeogu, L. I. and Okolo, B. N. (1995). Effects of Air Rest Periods and Alkaline Steep Treatment on Sorghum Malting. Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 102: 321- 325.
Evans, D. E., MacLeod, L. C., Eglinton, J. K., Gibson, C. E., Zhang, X., Wallace, W., Skerritt, J. H., and Lance, R. C. M. (1997). Measurement of Beta-amylase in malting barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.). I. Development of a quantitative ELISA for Beta-amylase. Journal of Cereal Science, 26(2):229–239.
Fali, M. H., Desobgo, Z. S. C. and Nso, E. J. (2019). Sorghum Coffee–Lactose Stout Production and It’s PhysicoChemical Characterization. Beverages, 5(20):1-20.
Georg-Kraemer, J. E., Mundstock, E. C. and Cavalli-Molina, S. (2001) Developmental Expression of Amylases During Barley Malting. Journal of Cereal Science, 33(3):279–288.
Guerin, J. R., Lance, R. C. M. and Wallace, W. (1992). Release and Activation of Barley Beta-Amylase by Malt Endopeptidases. Journal of Cereal Science, 15(1):5–14.
Igyor, M. A. (2006).Effects of Different Malting and Mashing Treatments on Protein Extraction from Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) Malts. Journal of Raw Materials Research.3(1):4 – 11.
Igyor, M. A., Ogbonna, A.C. and Palmer, G.H. (1998). Effect of Malting Temperature and Time on Enzyme Development and Sorghum Wort Properties. Journal of Institute of Brewing and Distillation,104:101- 104.
Institute of Brewing (1991). Recommended Methods of Analysis. London, Institute of Brewing, section 2.3-2.8, 5.5, 8.1.
Moneke, A. N., Okolo, B. N., Orji, N. O. and Ire, F. S. (2009). The Effects of Malting Conditions on the Diastatic Power of Three Malted Nigerian Sorghum Cultivars. Bioresearch,7(2): 514 – 518
Nnamchi, C. I., Okolo, B. N. and Moneke, A. N. (2014). Grain and Malt Quality Properties of Some Improved Nigerian Sorghum Varieties. Journal of Institute of Brewing and Distilling. 120:353-359.
Ogbonna, A. C. (2002). Studies on Malting Parameters, Purification and Characterization of Proteolytic Enzymes from Sorghum Malt Varieties, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Ogbonna, A. C. (2011) Current Developments in Malting and Brewing Trials with Sorghum in Nigeria: A Review, Journal of Institute of Brewing, 117:394–400.
Ogu, E. O., Odibo, F. J. C., Agu, R. C., And Palmer, G. H. (2006) Quality Assessment Of Different Sorghum Varieties For Their Brewing Potential. Journal of Institute of Brewing, 112: 117–121.
Pozo-Insfran, D., Urias-Lugo, D., Hernandez-Brenes, C. and Serna Saldivar, S. O. (2004). Effect of Amyloglucosidase on Wort Composition and Fermentable Carbohydrate Depletion in Sorghum Lager Beers. Journal of Institute of Brewing and Distilling, 110(2):124–132.
Schober, T. J. and Bean, S. R. (2008). Sorghum and Maize. In: Gluten-Free Cereal Products and Beverages. Arendt, E. K. And Bello, F. D. (Eds). Elsevier. 101-118.
Steiner, E., Gastl, M. and Becker, T. (2011). Protein Changes During Malting and Brewing with Focus on Haze and Foam Formation: A Review. European Food Research and Technology,232:191-204.
Taylor, J. R. N., Schober, T. J., and Bean, S. R. (2006). Novel Food and Non-Food Uses for Sorghum and Millets. Journal of Cereal Science, 44: 252–271.
Yin, C., Zhang, G. P., Wang, J. M. and Chen, J. X. (2002).Variation of Beta-Amylase Activity in Barley as Affected by Cultivar and Environment and Its Relation to Protein Content And Grain Weight. Journal of Cereal Science, 36(3):307–312.
Waniska, R. D., Hugo, L. F. and Rooney, L. W. (1992). Practical Methods to Determine the Presence of Tannins in Sorghum. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 1: 122-128.