The Bioscientist Journal 2019-09-29T15:35:32+00:00 Frank C. Ogbo Open Journal Systems <p class="style14 style18" align="left">&nbsp;The Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria would like to introduce you to "<strong>The Bioscientist Journa</strong>l" a new multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal dedicated to increasing the depth of knowledge across the disciplines and the disemination of scientific ideas for the enhancement of human life.</p> <p class="style14 style18" align="left">The Journal is publlished quarterly in English, and covers areas of Biosciences including Biochemistry, Microbiology, Zoology, Botany, Parasitology, Entomology, Molecular biology, Genetics and related disciplines and Technologies.</p> Proximate Analysis And Phytochemical Composition Of Fresh And Dried Fruit Of Morinda Lucida 2019-09-29T15:12:21+00:00 I. O Igwilo L. C. Iwualla S. N. Igwilo A. C. Agbara C. O. Okpala C. O. Ezeigwe <p>The numerous ethno-medicinal properties <em>of Morinda lucida, </em>an evergreen rainforest medium-sized tree also known as Brimstone tree, have called for a serious research investigation of all the various parts, including the fruits, in order to promote maximum utilization of the plant. In this present study therefore, the nutritional (proximate) and phytochemical evaluation of the fresh and dried fruit of <em>Morinda lucida</em> were carried out using standard methods such as in order to determine the nutritional potential of the plant. The result of the proximate analysis showed that the dried fruit of <em>Morinda lucida</em> contains in percentage (%), 3.23±0.04 moisture,&nbsp; 4.25±0.35 ash, 4.98±0.05 crude protein,&nbsp; 27.80±0.14 crude fiber, 16.95±0.21 total lipids and 42.79±0.11 total carbohydrate while the fresh fruit contains in percentage (%), 70.15±2.62 moisture, 2.55±0.07 ash, 3.88±0.05 crude protein,&nbsp; 4.61±0.57 crude fiber, 2.27±0.09 total lipids and 15.58±0.46 total carbohydrate. The phytochemical analysis showed that the dried fruit of <em>Morinda lucida</em> contains phytate, alkaloids, oxalate, saponins and cardiac glycosides with mg/100g values of 140±0.02, 3310±0.47, 1336±0.91, 4450±0.78 and 3910±0.13 respectively while the fresh fruit contains 60±0.00 mg/100g phytate, 470±0.02mg/100g alkaloid, 488±0.17mg/100g oxalate, 1710+0.13mg/100g saponin and 1950+0.78mg/100g cardiac glycoside. The tannin content of the dried fruit was 1496+0.36 mg/100g. However, the fresh fruit did not have a detectable amount of tannin.&nbsp; The observation that equal grams of the dried fruit had higher concentrations of the nutrients and Phytochemicals compared to the fresh fruit may be attributed to the fact that drying of fruits concentrates the fiber and phytochemicals in them.&nbsp; These results have shown that the fruits of <em>Morinda lucida </em>have pharmacologically active compounds and is also nutritionally potent and as such, could be used in ethno-medicine as well as an alternative source of feed for animals.</p> 2018-01-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 The Bioscientist Journal In vitro screening for human probiotic potentials of Lactobacillus tucceti CECT 5920 and Lactobacillus mindensis TMW isolated from Nigerian Fermented foods 2019-09-15T17:22:51+00:00 C. N Obi <p><em>In vitro</em> Probiotic potentials of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional fermented foods namely: <em>ugba, ogi, </em>fermenting cassava and <em>kunu-zaki</em> were studied. Twenty five (25) samples each of the four types of fermented foods were serially diluted in sterile peptone water 0.1ml aliquots of appropriate dilution was streaked on De Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) agar containing 50mg of nystatin for the isolation of LAB. 48 LAB isolates were recovered from the samples these were screened for bacteriocin production by the Agar Well Diffusion assay and two best bacteriocin producers characterized by molecular method as <em>Lactobacillus tucceti</em> CECT 5920 and <em>Lactobacillus mindensis </em>TMW were tested for their human probiotic potentials. Typed cultures of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> NCTC 8325 and <em>Escherichia coli</em> 0157:H7 were used as test pathogens. <em>L. tucceti</em> CECT 5920 and <em>L. mindensis</em> TMW had the same level of bacteriocin production and antimicrobial activity (P≤0.05). The LAB isolates resisted the pH range of 2-8 for 24 hrs while higher bile salt assimilation was shown by <em>L. tucceti </em>CECT 5920. Both LAB strains tolerated pepsin enzyme after 72 hrs. Cholesterol assimilation was better with <em>L mindensis </em>TMW. Both LAB strains did not show any haemolytic effect. <em>L. tucceti</em> CECT 5920 was sensitive to Cotrimoxazole while <em>L mindensis</em> was resistant to all the antibiotics tested. <em>&nbsp;L. tucceti</em> CECT 5920 gave better results as a LAB isolate with better probiotic potentials than <em>L mindensis </em>TMW.</p> 2019-09-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2018 The Bioscientist Journal Shelf Life Extension In Burukutu, A Nigerian Alcoholic Beverage Using Antimicrobiologically Active Spices 2019-09-29T15:35:32+00:00 F. C. Ogbo I. O Igwilo <p>Common food preservation methods such as pasteurization or the use chemical preservatives render <em>burukutu</em>, a Nigerian alcoholic beverage unacceptable because they further gelatinize starch or eliminate the beer’s characteristic effervescence through the killing of active yeasts. Spices are known to be selective in their inhibition of different types of microorganisms. The objective of this study was to select spices, which would inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms but allow the growth of active yeasts such that shelf life of <em>burukutu</em> is extended with retention of beer’s characteristic effervescence. Lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds isolated during the fermentation/spoilage of <em>burukutu</em> were screened for susceptibility to ethanolic extracts of the rhizome of <em>Zingiber officinale</em>, leaves of <em>Cymbopogon citratus</em>, seeds of <em>Aframomum melegueta</em>, leaves of <em>Gongronema latifolium</em> and the tree bark of <em>Sacoglottis gabonensis</em>in using plate assays <em>.Burukutu</em> brewed with aqueous extracts of these spices were also tested for acceptability using the 9-point Hedonic scale and a panel of regular <em>burukutu</em> drinkers. No spice extracts showed absolute selective antimicrobial activity against any specific organisms. However, in the plate assays, extracts of <em>Zingiber officinale </em>showed a stronger inhibitory activity on the growth of molds and the acetic acid bacteria than it demonstrated against yeasts. Burukutu brewed with this spice showed a reduced rate of growth of all organisms particularly, the molds and the acetic acid bacteria and hence prolonged the shelf life for at least three days. <em>Burukutu</em> flavored with this spice was also acceptable; mean score by panelists was 7.2963<sup>a</sup>0.49 compared with 7.7037<sup>a</sup>0.39 for the control.</p> 2018-01-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 The Bioscientist Journal