INTESTINAL HELMINTH INFECTIONS IN PUPILS OF A RURAL COMMUNITY IN NIGERIA

Main Article Content

U. C. Ngenegbo
O. A. Alozor
O. O. Ikpeze
J. I. Chikwendu

Abstract

Helminth parasites are endemic in rural communities in Nigeria that lack adequate water and sanitary facilities, so this study was focused on intestinal helminth infections and associated risks amongst pupils at Ebenebe in Anambra State Nigeria. This cross-sectional study was approved by Ministry of Basic Education Awka (Ref: MOBE/SCHD/1583/T9/8) while ethical permit (Ref: ASUBEB/ADM/14/VOL.III/232 of 21/11/2019) was granted by Anambra State Universal Basic Education Board. The 110 pupils enrolled in Umuji, Obuno, Umuoye, and Umuogbuefi public primary schools at Ebenebefor 2018/2019 school year constituted study population, while sample size of eighty (twenty pupils from each school) were systematically chosen. Pupils’ schools, age, gender, parents’ main occupation and toilet-use were obtained through visits, observations and oral interviews. Direct faecal smears and formalin-ether concentration techniques were used for stool samples analysis while parasitological keys were used for helminth parasites identifications. Data were summarized with bar charts using Microsoft Excel13Chart wizard, and standard error bars indicated significant differences (p<0.05) among variables. Overall prevalence of intestinal helminth infection was 45% (boys 44.2% and girls 45.9%). Species-specific prevalence of infection was Ascaris lumbricoides(36.2%), Hookworm (6.3%), and Trichuris trichiura(2.5%). Observed inadequate toilet facility and safe water supply are potential risks for intestinal parasitism in Ebenebe. Provision of these facilities, periodic deworming and good hygiene practices will help to control infection and re-infection of intestinal parasites in Ebenebe.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ngenegbo, U. C., Alozor, O. A., Ikpeze, O. O., & Chikwendu , J. I. (2022). INTESTINAL HELMINTH INFECTIONS IN PUPILS OF A RURAL COMMUNITY IN NIGERIA. The Bioscientist Journal, 10(3), 326-336. Retrieved from https://bioscientistjournal.com/index.php/The_Bioscientist/article/view/126
Section
Articles

References

Albonico, M., Montresor A., Crompton, D.W.T. and Savioli, L. (2006).Interventions for the control of Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis in the community. Advances in Parasitology, 61:311-348
Anderson, R. M., Turner, H. C., Troscott, J. E., Hollingswott, T. D., and Brooker, S. D. (2015). Should the goal for treatment of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections be changed from morbidity control in children to community-wide transmission elimination? PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9(8):e003897
Anderson, R. M., Troscott, J. E., Pullan, R. D., Brooker, S. D., and Hollingswott, T. D. (2013). How effective is school-based deworming for community-wide control of soil transmitted helminths (STHs)? PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7(2):e207.
Aniwada, E. C., Uleanya, N. D., Igbokwe, L. N., and Onwuasoigwe, C. (2016). Soil transmitted helminths: Prevalence, perception and determinants among primary school children in rural Enugu State. Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Diseases and Health. 15(1):1-12.
Ariyo, F., Fagbenro, B., and Faweya, T. (2007).Helminthic reduction with albendazole among school children in riverine communities of Nigeria. Journal of Rural Tropical Public Health, 6:6-10.
Chioma, L. I. (2015). Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection among school children in rural and semi urban communities in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Dental Medicine Science,6:61-66.
Chukwuma, I. M., Ekejindu, N. R., Agbakoba, D. A. and Nwosu, D. C. (2009). The prevalence of factors of Geohelminth infections among primary school children in Ebenebe Town, Anambra State, Nigeria. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 4(3):211-215.
Ikpeze, O. O., and Chima, S. C. (2017). Soil-transmitted helminth parasites contaminating edible raw vegetables and fruits sold at Nkwo-Edo market Nnew i Nigeria. The Bioscientist, 5(1):65-72. Retrieved from https://bioscientistjournal.com
Kamalu, N. A., Uwakwe, F. E. and Opara, J. A. (2013). Prevalence of intestinal parasite among high school students in Nigeria. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 2(7):1-9.
Metuh, O., and Ikpeze, O. O. (2009). Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) of School Teachers on Malaria, Helminthiasis and Associated Risk Factors in Primary Schools in Onitsha, Anambra State, South-Eastern Nigeria. Animal Research International, 6(2):987-993.Retrieved from www.zoo-unn.org
Montresor, A., Crompton, D. W. T., Gyorkos, T. W., Savioli, L., and World Health Organization. (2002). Helminth control in school-age children: a guide for managers of control programmes. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42473
Nasiru, M., Umar, L. M., and Abduhadi, B. J. (2017). Survey on prevalence of intestinal parasites associated with some primary school aged children in Dutsinma area, Katsina State, Nigeria. MOJ Bio Med, 2(2):197-201. DOI: 10.15406/mojbm.2017.02.00044.
Ngenegbo, U. C., Okafor, E., and Ikpeze, O. O. (2019). Intestinal Helminth Parasitic Infections among School-Aged Children in Dunukofia, Anambra State, South-Eastern Nigeria. The Diagnostics, 3(2):61-66. Retrieved from https://www.biomedicaldaignostics.org
Ngenegbo, U. C., and Iwuagwu, U. J. (2019). Geohelminth parasite-stages found on Fresh Vegetables at the Eke-Awka Market, Anambra State, South-Eastern Nigeria. The Diagn ostics, 3(2):55-60. Retrieved from https://www.biomedicaldaignostics.org
NPC (2006). National Population Commission. Nigerian Population Census Report 2006.
Nwaneri, D. U., and Omuemu, V. O. (2012). Risks of intestinal Helminthiasis in children living in orphanages in Benin City, Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Paediatric, 39(3):118-123.
Ojurongbe, O., Oyesiji, K. F., Ojo J. A., Odewale, G., Adefioye, O. A., Olowe, A. O., Opaleye, O. O., Bolaji, O. S., and Ojurongbe, T.A. (2014). STH infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife southwest, Nigeria: A cross-sectional study. International Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 2(1):6–10.
Rao, J. N., and Scott, A. J. (1992). A Simple Method for the Analysis of Clustered Binary Data, Biometrics, 48:577-585.
Tefera, E., Mohammed, J and Mitiku, H. (2015). Intestinal helminthic infections among elementary students of Babile town, Eastern Ethiopia. The Pan African Medical Journal, 20:50
Ukibe, S. N., Ukibe, A. C. Obi-Okaro, A. and Iwueze, M. (2018). Prevalence and Pattern of Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs) among Primary School Children at Nnewi, Nnewi-North Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria. Annual Research and Review in Biology, 28(1):1-6,
WHO (2015). World Health Organization. Intestinal Helminths. Facts sheet No.366,www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs366/en/.2015
WHO (1991). Basic laboratory methods in medical parasitology (Reprinted 1997). World Health Organization. Geneva.
WHO (1994). Bench Aids for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites. World Health Organization Geneva.
Widjana, D. P., and Sutisna, P. (2000). Prevalence of soil transmitted infections in the rural population of Bali, Indonesia. Southeast Asia Journal of Tropical medicine and Public Health, 31:454-459.
Wosu, M and Onyeabor, A. (2014).The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school children in a tropical community of south-eastern Nigeria. Journal of Animal Science Advances, 4(8): 1004-1008.https://doi.org/10.5455/jasa.20140827111807.